信号词已被捕,雅思阅读高分即将拿下!

2016年09月06日 10:59

         阅读是一门艺术。能看懂阅读这门艺术的同学,当然不能忽视艺术中的细节,往往细节体现真谛。

阅读任何的一篇雅思文章,其实就像是在开启一个宝藏,总是会有“机关重重”,陷阱不断,但题目中总会暗含着一个藏宝图,有许多的“玄机”,待你一一开启考点的宝藏。

我们这里所说的“玄机”,就是无所不在的信号词!

信号词就好比是高速公路上的标识牌,见到了它们,你就知道目的地距离自己的位置还有多远的距离,需要直走,还是拐弯。从而采取精读或是跳读扫读等不一样的方法和阅题技巧。下面我们就分析一下雅思阅读中信号词对考点指示的微妙作用。

信号词一般分为两大类:一个是传统的信号词;另一个就是非传统的信号词。为什么要这样分呢?传统的信号词是我们平时在学校课堂上、写作课上,老师都强调的几大类,表顺接和递进,表对比和转折,表相似,表时间先后关系,表排列次序,表因果关系,表举例和说明关系。而非传统的信号词则是我们在平时阅读中常常忽视的细节,细节决定成败,雅思阅读中,我们也不可忽视细节的重要性。我们先看传统信号词与考点的联系。

 

一. 传统信号词

顺接和递进

例词:also, furthermore, moreover, what is more, in addition…

考点:And Western scientists are starting to draw on this wisdom…

解析:And 在这句话开头,有一定的递进含义, this wisdom则是指代了前面一句话出现的their wealth of traditional knowledge(因纽特人传统的知识),所以这两句话有紧密的联系,同学们在读题的时候要通过发现信号词,然后发散地看它的前后句,最后把考点考察的意思补充完整。

对比和转折

例词:however, but, although, nevertheless, on the other hand, by comparison…

考点:However, we believe that credit must be extended in association with other types of support that help participants develop critical life skills as well as productive businesses。

题目中出现了conclude的字眼,总结段落一般是在文章的最后,然而带有转折信号词however 这句话,显然就是文章的考点所在。

相似
例词:similarly, in other words, that is, put another way…

考点:In other words, we became aware of the obvious fact that there were ‘limits to growth’。

解析:In other words 是解释,换一种说法,通常会以更加简单易懂,清晰的话语陈述出难点,常常难点是考点出没的地方。

时间先后

例词:firstly, second, next, then, now, later, since, eventually, finally…

考点:Three factors are involved in this change. First is an awareness of the severity of the problem. Second, a number of resources to help tackle bullying have become available in Britain…Third, there is evidence that these materials work, and that schools can achieve something.

解析:段落结构很清楚,主要是因为有表达顺序的信号词First、second、third,让我们认识这段是在讲,侍强凌弱这种现象已经开始改变,主要是从三个方面入手:意识、资源、监督。这种发展让学校有了更多的方法和有效途径解决存在的问题。这里的First、second、third提示我们三个方面,同时也是一个发展的过程。

排列次序

例词:another, the second, the most, the best…

考点:Most important of all, the traditional measures of ‘risk’, such as parents’ age and education, or whether they were a single parent, bore little or no relationship to the measures of achievement and language development。

解析:most important of all 强调了最重要的事情,也就是文中比较重要的结论要出炉了。Single parents是题目中的关键词,同样在这一句里出现了,我们可以利用对信号词的敏感度,快速抓住文章的考点,进行局部精读。

强调作用

例词:in fact, in essence, in particular, emphasize…

考点:This, in essence, is the problem of modern sociobiology- to discover the degree to which hard-wired genetic programming dictates…

解析:信息包含题考察细节是在那个段落出现,在做此类题目时,要注意信号词与考点的密切相关性,从而迅速找准答案。这里出现了in essence (实质上), 起了一定的强调作用,迅速扫读后,发现同时出现了题目关键词sociobiology, 破折号后面的介词to是表目的与题目中的the general aim of一致对应。

因果关系

例词:as, because, since, lead to, as a result, result in, consequently, therefore, thus, the caused of…

考点:The fourth question concerned the causes of the destruction of rainforests. Perhaps encouragingly, more than half of the pupils (59%) identified that it is human activities, which are destroying rainforests…

解析:这道简答题的文本题就是问the reason for the loss of rainforests, 所以我们可以同通过原因信号词,判断考点的方位。

举例子和说明

例词:for example, for instance, that is to say, i.e., such as, including…

考点: Other substances were then introduced: including fillers, such as woodflour, asbestos or cotton…

解析:我们看到such as后面是举例子,such as 后面的例子可以作为定位词,woodflour, asbestos, cotton就是fillers的其中一种。Fillers 在这里就是一个概括性的词语,常常是考点。

 

 

二. 非传统信号词

表达客观结论findings

例词:indicate that, suggest that, find out, conclude that, point out, report that, demonstrate that…

考点:But Byers points out that the benefits of increased exercise disappear rapidly after training stops, so any improvement in endurance resulting from juvenile play would be lost by adulthood。

解析:配对题目是典型的人名和成果的配对,我们到文章中定位人名就比较好找到答案,可是人名出现的地方就一定是考点么?不见得。但是一旦表达客观结论的信号词与人名同时出现时,就是考点出没的地方了。

表达主观观点statements, opinions

例词:say, believe, argue that, maintain that, claim…

考点:The UCSF researchers maintain that the simplest and most cost-effective action is to establish smoke-free work places, schools and public places.

解析:这道分类题考察区分a finding和an opinion。表达个人观点(an opinion)带有一定的主观性,所用的信号词显然与客观事实发现(a finding)的有所区别。

 

通过我们上面陈列的两大类信号词:传统的与非传统的,我相信可以给备战的烤鸭们一点宝贵的做题技巧,信号词与考点是一对好朋友,所以常常信号词出现的地方,考点都会在它的附近埋伏着,要留心哦!同时,要掌握每一类信号词对文章段落的结构起的作用和意义,这样有利于我们对段落主旨、上下句关系快速的判断,帮助解题。

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数据说明:所有数据全部同步更新collegeboard(2016), 除了“录取机会”同步更新collegegsimply(2017),以及“校园安全”同步更新nces.